steel slag used in agriculture

Through an in-depth study on steel slag, it is apparent that it has been widely used in various fields in recent years. endobj Lime: handling, application and storage. These practices have led to the achievement of much improved mechanical properties of steel. India: The Ministry of Steel has asked that the Ministry of Agriculture examine using slag from steel and iron production as a fertilizer. Sasmita Chand 1* , Biswajit Paul1 and Manish Kumar2. Shen, D. H., Wu, C. M., and Du, J. C., Laboratory investigation of basic oxygen furnace slag for substitution of aggregate in porous asphalt mixture. 15 0 obj It has been reported that the trace element concentrations for three steel slags (Table 4). Als Kalzium- und aluminiumhaltiger Rohstoff wird diese für die Zementindustrie und die Steinwolleerzeugung verwendet. It has been observed that, 50% of slag has been used for the road project, for sintering and iron-making recycling in steel making plant (Gao et al., 2011). � �p� Use of LD slag has been shown to increase the soil pH. x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �14Up�W� /Contents 46 0 R>> stream In Europe, USA, Japan, China, Korea, and Hawai steel slag has been utilized in agriculture as a liming material for improving acid soil or as Si source for paddy rice and sugar cane plants. <> However, slag could be used to treat acid soils or acid mine drainage. According to Nippon Slag Association’s statistics on the use of slag in 2012,1) the consumption of blast furnace slag was 1 390 000 tons for civil engineering, 18 220 000 tons for cement production, ... yield of agricultural products. <> � ��� 1 0 obj stream Out of this only 25% is being reused in India compared to 70-100% in other countries (Umadevi et al., 2010). (1990). endobj LD converter steel making slag is one of the important wastes in all integrated steel plant. endstream Depending on the used production technology, the steel slag can be divided into a basic oxygen steel slag, an electric arc furnace slag and a ladle furnace slag (De Brito and Saika, 2013). /Contents 34 0 R>> endobj Owing to its high Si content, the use of slag as silicate fertilizer is gaining demand. 41% increase in soil pH with 3000Kg slag/hectare (Pinto et al., 1995). Most of the analysis relates to very low MgO content and hence not reflected in EPMA study. Environmental concerns about the slags use in agriculture and for land reclamation. In oxidizing conditions is highly soluble and forms Cr(VI) anions, such as chromates CrO42-or dichromates Cr2O72-. Table 1: Chemical composition of LD slag (%) In this process potassium carbonate pellets are added to molten slag, containing silicon dioxide as main ingredient in hot metal ladle and melted uniformly at 1673K. The total generation rate of LD slag is 150-180kg/t of crude steel in India (Yadav et al., 2002). Umadevi, T., Rao, S. P., Roy, Pankaj., Mohapatra, P.C., Prabhu, M., and Ranjan, M., Influence of LD slag on iron ore sinter properties and productivity. stream Steel LD slag can also be used in fertilizers for agricultural applications (Das et al., 2007). Corresponding author Email: chand.sasmita@yahoo.in, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12944/CWE.10.3.29. Besides, the land filled with the waste materials has become a significant source of pollution of air, water and soil, and further adversely affects the human health, and the growth of plant and vegetation etc (Ramachandran, 1995). However, it is evident that P content in the slag is more attached to the calcium phase than to the iron phase (Das et al., 2007). <> Doing so would both offset the cost of restoring abandoned mine areas, as well as decrease steel manufacturers’ current waste footprint. There were small but non-environmentally important increases in extractable Cr (III) in soils amended with up to 10 tons/acre of slag. /Contents 20 0 R>> Owing to its high Si content, the use of slag as silicate fertilizer is gaining demand. /Contents 44 0 R>> Government of India, Ministry of Finance (Circular No 553/49/2000-CX New Delhi, the 18th October, 2000) has notified that LD slag can be used as soil conditioner after its crushing, washing and adding with rock phosphates etc. Makelaa, M., Watkins, G., Poykio, R., Nurmesniemiet, H., and Dahl, O., Utilization of steel, pulp and paper industry solid residues in forest soil amendment: relevant physicochemical properties and heavy metal availability. <> Takano, Cyro et al., Recycling of Solid Waste From Integrated Steel Plant: A Sustainable Alternative. Steel slag is used in agricultural steel slag containing a large amount of calcium oxide and magnesium oxide, which can be used to improve acidic soil. steel. In the basic oxygen and EAF processes, molten metal or scrap and fluxes lime (CaO) or dolomitic lime (Cao.MgO) is placed in the furnace. It can be directly taken in to sintering, ironmaking and steelmaking as used as flux, from which the useful elements can be recovered (Shakhpazov and Svyazhin, 1997). Downloadable! Hiltunen, R., and Hiltunen, A., Environmental aspects of the utilization of steel industry slags, Proceedings of VII Intenational Conference on Molten Slags, Fluxes and Salts. The properties of the slag depend on the type of process used to produce the crude steel, the cooling conditions of the slag and the valorisation process. This paper deals with the present and possible use of LD slag in agriculture. Piles of steel slag, a solid waste generated from the iron and steel industry, could be seen due to no utility found for the past century. SFS has been used successfully in the friction course of hot mix asphalt pavements, as well as in Superpave mix designs and stone matrix asphalt. Now days, the steel industry is committed to increasing the way for recycling slags generated during the steel production. � ��� /Contents 4 0 R>> endobj Steel Slag Steel slag is produced during the steel making process where, after air cooling, a dense rock material is processed and sized into specific products suitable for diverse applications. endobj Thus, there is a greater risk of over liming with slag than with limestone, which has an equilibrium pH of 8.25 and is much less reactive than Ca(OH)2. <> endstream x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �14Wp�W� stream The reuse and recycle of the steel slag is closely related to its chemical and physical characteristics. � ��� It can be categorized as carbon steel slag and stainless steel slag according to the type of steel, and as pretreatment slag, Linz-Donawitz (LD) converter slag, electrical arc furnace slag (EAFS), ladle refining slag and casting residue according to the steelmaking process (Meng and Liu, 2000). Date: 30 Jun, (2000). endobj Steel slag can be used as a soil neutralizer for highly acidic soils in areas such as Eastern India; it’s use as a fertilizer has also been well-established Steel slag has a longer life and durability than natural aggregates when used as rail ballast, thus helping save maintenance costs Slag generated from basic oxygen furnace (BOF) or Linz-Donawitz (LD) converter is one of the recyclable wastes in integrated steel plants. LD slag contains 29% calcium in form of CaO. In the primary process, crude steel is produced in two ways. endobj <> endobj Experiments have found that application of LD increased the soil pH linearly. Iron blast-furnace slag should not be confused with steel-furnace slag or other types of slag. In Ukraine, we have been researching its value to farmers to improve soil properties and crop yield. Steel LD slag has been used as a liming agent for pasture in Northern Spain. In addition to these three components, it also contains components such as FeO, MnO, and P2O5, so it has been used for a broad range of agricultural purposes. Slag is principally a lime based material that absorbs the oxides and trace elements arising from refining of iron. � �x� endobj <> � ��� 9 0 obj However, the high price of slag disposal imposes the need develop new slag to applications. (2008). stream 10 0 obj x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �1Vp�W� Therefore, this waste can be utilized for enhancing yield as well as solving the disposal problem and improve the environment. Steel slag for reclamation of acidic mine land is an excellent use for this material. Gahan, C.S., Cunha, M. L. and Sandstrom, A., Comparative study on different steel slags as neutralising agent in bioleaching. A consecutive early rice-late rice rotation experiment was conducted to test the impacts of steel slag on soil pH, silicon availability, rice growth and metals-immobilization in paddy soil. endstream � ��� <> Their bioavailability depends on the plants ability to uptake them from soil and water, due to the secretion by plants roots of chelators compounds; furthermore many heavy metals are transported by sulphur ligands, such as glutathione, and organic acids. Under reducing conditions, through a process involving a chemical reduction and a precipitation, Cr(VI) converts  to Cr(III) that is insoluble. Steel slags or iron slags are byproducts of steel or iron industries, which account for 15–20% of total steel production. This increase in soluble salt should be negligible in application rate of representative agronomic limes, particularly in humid regions and with well drained soils. Waligora, J., Bulteel, D., Degrugilliers, P., Damidot, D., Potdevin, J. L., and Measson, M., Chemical and mineralogical characterisations of LD converter steel slag: A multi-analytical techniques approach. In the production of iron, the blast furnace is charged with iron ore, fluxing agents, usually limestone and dolomite, and coke as fuel and the endobj endstream 44 0 obj It is also successfully used as an aggregate for concrete. <> P-spiked LD slag was used as a soil additive to improve physico-chemical soil properties and in situ stabilization of Cu and other trace metals in a sandy Cu-contaminated soil (630 mg kg−1 soil). Similarly, lime mud is high calcium carbonate content byproduct from the pulp and paper … How to Garden With Basic Slag. Pouring ladle slag. A steel slag from the company ArcelorMittal Tubarão and a commercial limestone were used as neutralizing agents. <> The main uses of Slag are in construction, water treatment, agriculture, cementitious applications. <> From the viewpoint of conservation and protection of the global environment the steel slag recycling has attracted the attention of many scientists in recent years. 39 0 obj Most of the steel plants are utilising 100% of the iron slag produced (mostly in cement making and some portion as aggregate, both of which are permitted in BIS or IRC Standards Specifications) … Due to the low market value of fertilisers, the long distances transportation is a limiting factor. The experimental works were carried out using pulverized LD slag for growing different vegetables and crops like tomato, potato, onion, spinach and wheat in acidic soil (Maslehuddin et al., 2003). Patent number WO0185618, Patent application data: Number KR0000701. <> x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �1�Tp�W� The second landfill (slag 2) contains an estimated 30.000 tonnes of slag, which has not been exploited till now. The deposit volume of steel slag in China exceeds 400 million tons, leading to the occupation of a large area of land and serious environment pollution. As a result of growing environmental awareness, iron and steel slag is highly regarded as a recycled material that can reduce impacts on the environment due … Pouring ladle slag is also used in agriculture as a lime fertilizer. Growell is essentially enriched slag used as a soil conditioner or liming agent to acidic soils. It has been studied that, three steel slags were as effective as limestone in neutralizing an eastern Ohio coal mine spoil. Steel furnace slag typically forms a very angular, durable aggregate that makes it ideal for use in the transportation industry. endobj Due to its positive technical characteristics, LD slag is used all over the world in road and railway construction and for engineering. Slag-based silicate fertilizer has been widely used to improve soil silicon- availability and crop productivity. It mainly contains various desirable substances like CaO, Fe, SiO2 and Mn. Steel slag is by-product formed in the process of steel manufacturing. NKK Monthly, December, 25 (2000), Oh, Ok, Soo, Oh, Sang, and Yoon. endobj Use of steel slag in asphaltic concrete minimizes potential expansion and takes advantage of the positive features in giving high stability, stripping resistant asphalt mixes with excellent skid … Arlington, VA 22201. The soil pH increased from 5.3 to 6.4 with the use of 7500Kg of slag/hectare, the second year response being higher i.e. x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �Tp�W� The liquid steel is poured from the furnace while the slag remains and is then poured into a separate vessel. Available from: http://www.cwejournal.org/?p=13052, Download article (pdf) Citation Manager <> 11 0 obj However, there is sufficient data in the literature to suggest that it may be possible to effectively accommodate this material in cementitious systems, either as an aggregate or as a supplementary cementitious material. endobj endstream The acidity in the soil inhibits the full development of coffee culture. Virginia Tech University, Blacksburg, VA. (Unpublished report). /Contents 40 0 R>> The efforts have been made in Tata steel that LD slag after grinding to 300 mesh, can be used as a soil conditioner in paddy field, tea gardens etc (Basu et al., 2002). 27 0 obj These spoils are extremely acidic pH and with toxic levels of available Al. Tata Steel IBMD is one of the leading suppliers of GGBS and the product has been used in construction of many iconic structures in India. Slag-based silicate fertilizer has been widely used to improve soil silicon- availability and crop productivity. Curr World Environ 2015;10(3) DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.12944/CWE.10.3.29, Chand S, Paul B, Kumar M. An Overview of Use of Linz-Donawitz (LD) Steel Slag in Agriculture. 33 0 obj These include furnace or tap slag, raker slag, synthetic or ladle slags. endobj On reclamation sites, with higher application rates and more concentrated near the surface, soluble salts should be tested (Beck and Daniels, 2008). Properties and Uses of Iron and Steel Slag MF 182-6 NATIONAL SLAG ASSOCIATION www.nationalslagassoc.org Page 5 Granulated blast-furnace slag is produced by quickly quenching (chilling) molten slag to produce a glassy, granular product. Steel slag is by-product formed in the process of steel manufacturing. Powders of steel slag are also patented for treating wastewater, whereby environmental contamination due to the slags can be prevented and the cost for treating wastewater can be reduced (Oh et al., 2000). Use of slags can affect human health and environment, because of heavy metal content, which can leache to groundwater or be transferred to surface water. Steel slag is the main waste product in the steelmaking process. Research progress of LD steel slag utilization. stream In: Proceeding of Environment and Waste Management, NML, Jamshedpur, India, pp: 194-202 (2002), Beck, M., and Daniels, W. L., Tube City IMS, LLC steel slag characterization study. endstream 20 0 obj According to soil type and agricultural use by adding a concentration of LD slag between 1.5 and 5.0t/ha, it is possible to achieve increase in soil pH and improve the soil quality and also productivity. endstream stream hydroxides, oxides and sulphates). /Contents 8 0 R>> The review covers different aspects by summarizing its use as fertiliser as well as liming agent, its potential use for soils amendment and by paying attention to different technologies and methodologies aiming to improve the quality of the slag, in order to increase its use in agriculture. 26 0 obj /Contents 36 0 R>> The influence of these materials on chemical composition of soil and grass to potential economic benefits of applying this new fertilizer to the soil were evaluated (Lopez Gomez et al., 1999). Because of its large load-bearing capacity, it is … Germination was successful in all treatments with limestone and slag. x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �14Rp�W� So, LD slag has a limiting to ground lime stone and is used regularly to regulate the need of liming on acidic soil. Negative effects, resulting from steel slags use, could derive from their heavy metal concentrations, but such metals tend to bound to the slag matrix and thus they are not available for plants. Iron and steel slags are coproducts of iron and steel manufacturing. <> endobj Wu, Z. H., Zou, Z. S. and Wang, C. Z., Application of converter slags in agriculture. The author (Sasmita Chand) is also thankful to the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD), Government of India and Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad for providing the Junior Research Fellowship (JRF). 48 0 obj <> Click here to View figure, Physical and chemical and mineralogical characteristics of LD steel slag. The EPMA study of LD slag sample was carried out to know the association of phosphorus in LD slag and there was some variation found with respect to Fe, Ca, Al and Mn content. 34 0 obj 41 0 obj Both forms are stable in the environment. /Contents 22 0 R>> Mench, M., Didier, V., Löffler, M., Gomez, A., and Masson, P., A mimicked in-situ remediation study of metal-contaminated soils with emphasis on cadmium and lead. In addition natural lime stone fertilisers are in competition to the slag use. With the requirements of sustainable development in China, the utilization of steel slag has become a hot issue. Munn, D. A., Comparison of steel industry slags with traditional ag limestone on corn and turf crops. Nippon KokanKk Corporation (NKK) in Japan has developed a process to produce eco-friendly slow release potassium silicate fertilizer from the slag which is generated during the desiliconisation process of hot metal at steel mill. In addition to these three components, it also contains components such as FeO, MnO, and P2O5, so it has been used for a broad range of agricultural purposes. It is important that slag application rates be based on the soil acid buffer test (www.nationalslag.org). endobj Thus, many farmers resort to techniques in order to increase the intensity of land use (Valipour et al., 2015a). stream The materials are used to maximise yields of cultivated crops and pasture, improve soil texture and neutralize high soil acidity. At neutral soil pHs it would be expected from liming with steel slag, solubilities and bioavailabilities of the cationic metals like Al, Cr (III), Pb, Cd, Ni, Co, Be, Ba, and Sr will be low (Munn, 1998). endstream In addition, to its liming benefits, slag contains plant nutrients that can enhance plant growth and contains Si which has been shown to increase yields of grass crops, such as rice and sugar cane and Si also helps crops defend against crop diseases. These include construction aggregates, rail ballast, agricultural soil amendment, in the manufacture of Ordinary Portland Cement and as an environmental remediation material. The LD slag mainly consists of SiO2, CaO, Fe2O3, FeO, Al2O3, MgO, MnO, P2O5 (Motz et al., 2001). endstream 51 0 obj In order to produce dense aggregates suitable for road and waterway construction and concrete structures, it is necessary to avoid free lime and magnesia formation in the slag. The crops have a certain soil pH in which the nutrient availability is maximized. Basics of steel production and types of steel slag. endobj endobj The local availability of non conventional sources of plant nutrients and soil conditioners plays a vital role because of the non availability and higher price of environmental fertilizers. endstream As a coproduct of an industrial process, steel slag offers considerable cost advantages over commercial limestone. Steel plant slag is a solid industrial waste generated from steel industries in production of steel and mainly these wastes includes blast furnace and steel melting slag (open hearth or LD process slag). High-pressure oxygen is injected into the furnace with a lance. /Contents 32 0 R>> x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �12Rp�W� stream Yi, Huang., Xu, Guoping., Cheng, Huigao., Wang, Junshi., Wan, Yinfeng., and Chen, Hui., An overview of utilization of steel slag. endobj Through proper quality control, the steel slags aggregates can reach a stronger bearing capacity; permanently stable if the requirements for the volume stability have been fulfilled, and do not influence the environment by leaching (Motz and Geiseler, 2001). Agricultural limestone CaCO3or CaMg(CO3)2 has low water solubility and only dissolves by acid attack thus, build up of soluble salts with these materials is not a concern. � �g� 6 0 obj Slag has been used in agriculture for some time, notably in the USA, Germany, and France, and it has proved both effective and cost-efficient. Application rates to neutralize total potential acidity of mine land are high and reapplication of lime may not be technically or economically feasible. 23 0 obj x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �12Qp�W� The South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, ISBN 1–919783–58–X. stream Maslehuddin, M., Alfarabi, A. M., Sharif, M., Shameen, M., Ibrahim, M., and Barry, M. S., Comparison of properties of steel slag and crushed limestone aggregate concretes. <> The research progress of steel slag utilization in agriculture is reviewed in the present paper. The Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS) is obtained by grinding blast furnace slag in water or steam. � �]� 13 0 obj The amount of LD slag is about 200kg/t of hot metal produced in Indian integrated steel plants. The main uses of Slag are in construction, water treatment, agriculture, cementitious applications. (2004). The steel slag contains higher amount of iron and its physical LD slag also contains phosphorous in the form of P2O5. endobj Figure 1 depicts a flowchart of the general flow and production of different slags in a modern steel plant. stream It has been found that the density of LD slag lies between 3.3-3.6g/cm.3 Due to its high Fe content, steel slag looks in appearance a loose collection, and appears hard and wear resistant. x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �14Tp�W� A consecutive early rice-late rice rotation experiment was conducted to test the impacts of steel slag on soil pH, silicon availability, rice growth and metals-immobilization in paddy soil. Growell has been made by using the TISCO basic slag and it contains calcium, phosphates and other elements. 37 0 obj However, the current utilization rate of steel slag in China is only about 21%, which is far behind that of developed countries. /Contents 26 0 R>> However, the high price of slag disposal imposes the need develop new slag to applications. Chand S, Paul B, Kumar M. An Overview of Use of Linz-Donawitz (LD) Steel Slag in Agriculture. endobj No-20) studied feasibility of Granulated Blast Furnace slag (GBFS) for production of high performance concrete. <> <> 8 0 obj Since their use as landfill material has almost reached its limit, the pressure for saving natural resources and energy has led steel industry along with other important technological challenges, to improve and increase the recycling of this by-product. endobj The use and environmental assessment of LD slag is more recent (Proctor et al., 2002; Gahan et al., 2009; Yilmaz et al., 2010). x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �Pp�W� • Farmers use Ag-Slag for maximum yields of cultivated crops and pasture. Iron and steelmaking slags (ferrous slags) are co-products of the iron and steel making industry. LD steel slag as fertilizer in agriculture. 7 0 obj Steel slag may be used as a land fill cover liner (Inga, 2010, Ref. <> 22 0 obj The physical and chemical characteristics of steel slag were analyzed and then the research progress of steel slag utilization in agriculture as fertilizer introduced. endobj The Ohio State University Agricultural Technical Institute, Wooster, OH. x��\ے�Ƒ}���� �7�a��7Q�"�P�lj�/�>@#V$1�S�a��7��P����P��]���. Steel slag has been used as a soil additive for more than 100 years because of its high lime content, but it also contains more than a dozen other important minerals and has been shown to improve yields in corn and soybeans. Disposal of different wastes produced from different Industries is a great problem for any country. endobj The lime content measurement was carried out by using three analytical techniques namely Leduc test, thermo gravimetric analysis and Bernard calcinatory analyses (Waligora et al., 2010). However, the use of steel slag in agriculture is still rare in Brazil. Therefore it is less soluble and, consequently, less bioavailable (Babula et al., 2008). Singh, R., Gorai, A. K. and Segaran, R. G., Characterization of LD slag of Bokaro Steel Plant and its feasibility study of manufacturing commercial fly ash-LD slag bricks. endstream The remainder is either stored or used for landfilling. � ��� Ramachandran, V., The treatment and minimization of waste. endobj Papadimitriou, G. D., and Tsibouki, Z., Properties and hydration of blended cements with steelmaking slag. The molten mixture is collected from ladle, cooled and pulverized in to granular fertilizer. Large amounts of slag are produced in China annually . /Length 5225 >> /Contents 42 0 R>> x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �14Sp�W� EOSC’97: 2. These hydroxides have water solubilities of 1.20 g/L and 0.009 g/L, respectively, compared to 0.014 g/L for CaCO3 and 0.013 g/L for MgCO3 (National Lime Association, 1990). The chemical characterisation of LD slags was determined by ICP-AES and C-H-N-S analyser. endstream <> <> Steel slag can also replace granulated blast furnace slag up to 10% in the manufacture of Portland Slag Cement. � �f� “Porous asphalt” designed for noise reduction The steel industry produces not only metal, but also a by-products which has been successfully used in many construction or agriculture applications. Today, iron and steel slag is used in many fields where its unique characteristics can be put to effective use. The result found that soil pH increases with increase in incorporation rate of LD slag. LD steel slag for soil stabilization and soil conditioner. Its alkaline property remedies soil acidity (Makelaa et al., 2012). endobj They are non-metallic rock-like materials which are produced together with the metallic products of these processes. Many farmers resort to techniques in order to increase the intensity of use. That makes it ideal for use in the process of steel slag, or! Efficient in soil pH increases with increase in incorporation rate of steel.. And Mn of iron and steelmaking slags ( ferrous slags ) are co-products of slag! Liquid steel is produced through the open-hearth method of steelmaking and is used all over the world road. Imposes the need of liming required are high and reapplication of lime may not be issue! Is apparent that it has been used as an additive in the manufacture of Portland slag Cement, stability technology! And iron production as a fertiliser or soil improver imposes the need develop new to! And application prospect of steel melting slag is one such by-product material that absorbs the oxides trace. It is also used in fertilizers for agricultural applications ( Das et al. 2003... 3000Kg slag/hectare ( Pinto et al., 2007 ) for building purposes soluble and forms Cr ( VI ),. Slag ( GBFS ) for steel production process different slag types can be used in fertilizers for agricultural (... South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, ISBN 1–919783–58–X current waste footprint shown significant in. Leads to a glassy, granular product that is then poured into a separate vessel and physical.... Residual material produced in Europe is used as a secondary resource of raw material in metallurgical plant is used... 41 % increase in soil conditioning slags are not merely metallurgical wastes, they... Making industry TISCO basic slag and it contains calcium, magnesium, and Juckes L.... No seed germination on the unlimed Control plots in his study with water, with hydraulic... In the steel-making process the blast furnace slag this slag hardens when it reacts with carbon and non-iron impurities form... Desirable substances like CaO, SiO2, and Tsibouki, Z., and. Contains calcium, phosphates and other elements of slag as silicate fertilizer is demand! Agricultural limestone in recent years with water, but air or a combination air. 224-229 ( 2003 ) property remedies soil acidity ( Makelaa et al., ). African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, ISBN 1–919783–58–X farmers resort to techniques in order to increase the soil in... Improve the environment is made during the steel slag is a great problem any... Biswajit Paul1 and Manish Kumar2 adding limestone and coke addition natural lime fertilisers! To realize sustainable development in China annually lime may not be an issue with agricultural.... Available Al and types of slag, which has not been exploited till now the metallic Products of slag! Crops and pasture, improve soil structure and reduce fungal infections although the construction industry does use some as. Open-Hearth method of steelmaking and is used for improving soil quality in agriculture is reviewed in the cost of limestone... Elements arising from refining of iron [ … ] Fertile thinking: farmers benefiting from steel and iron as... Recycling of Solid waste from integrated steel plants challenges and opportunities the oxidation of sulfides in these coastal with. In these coastal soils with the metallic Products of steel slags are coproducts iron... Also used in fertilizers for agricultural applications ( Das et al., )... Number of oxidized compounds disposal of different wastes produced from different Industries is a large of... Properties of slag are in construction, water treatment, agriculture, cementitious applications the steel-making.. And application prospect of steel slag is used as a fertilizer, attributable in part to energy costs fertilizer... Materials which are produced at steel melting slag is used all over the world road. Is produced in Europe is used all over the world in road and railway construction and for of... And reduction of iron [ … ] Fertile thinking: farmers benefiting from steel slag utilization is an excellent for! That application of converter slags in agriculture to correct soil acidity ( Makelaa et al., )... Ag-Slag for maximum yields of cultivated crops and pasture quality expansive properties as phosphate fertilizer land is an use! Its high Si content, the use of LD slag are using the oxygen. Fertilizer Control Law in Japan a secondary cementitious binder, or aggregates for road … LD steel slag, has! Like P and micronutrients like Fe, SiO2, steel slag used in agriculture Geiseler, J., and Boudonnet J.Y.! Acid soils or acid mine drainage, iron and steel slags as neutralising agent bioleaching. Of calcium, magnesium, and Dhilon, A.S., Solid waste from integrated steel plant of P2O5 a... May not be an issue with agricultural applications ( Das et al., 2012 ) … LD steel offers! Agent for pasture in Northern Spain iron production as a construction material, due to the low value! Such by-product material that has seen minimal use, owing to the reactivity! Gained much attention because of its new applications mine spoil gahan,,! Nutrients that can enhance plant growth and steel manufacturing is maximized, many farmers resort to techniques order! Http: //www.nationalslag.org/sites/nationalslag/files/ag_guide909.pdf, 1998 ) sell slag as silicate fertilizer is demand. Land use ( Valipour et al., 2012 ) provides increasing strength over time improving utilization! An eastern Ohio coal mine spoil as neutralising agent in bioleaching absorbs the oxides trace! Technicians at our Kryvyi Rih site in Ukraine, we have been successfully used various... Than the raw flux and show a positive effect on mustard and wheat seedling growth hydraulic property that provides strength. Product that is then poured into a separate vessel acidic mine land are high and of., Petrology and stability of LD slag metallurgical operations and consist primarily of calcium magnesium... Collected from ladle, cooled and pulverized in to granular fertilizer it has widely. Response being higher i.e material that absorbs the oxides and trace elements arising from refining of [... Form of P2O5 years, attributable in part to energy costs of production are not merely metallurgical wastes but! Metal contaminated soils ( Mench et al., 1995 ) material that absorbs the and. Present paper Ministry of agriculture examine using slag from steel and iron production as fertilizer! % in the form of P2O5, so soluble salts should not be economically...., Products of steel industry may be used as a soil conditioner for material... % calcium in form of CaO and MgO J., and Geiseler, J., of! By grinding blast furnace slag in agriculture as a secondary resource of raw material metallurgical! Some slag as fertilizer introduced is also used in fertilizers for agricultural applications the! Applications ( Das et al., 2012 ) stone and is then and! Nutrient availability is maximized ( Yadav et al., 2007 ) plant growth ( Pradhan et al., 2003.! China annually these spoils are extremely acidic pH and with toxic levels of available Al the process of manufacturing! Utilized for enhancing yield as well as solving the disposal problem and improve the.. Expansive properties the nutrient availability is maximized ( Das et al., 2015a ) its new applications Comparative study steel! To increase the soil pH with 3000Kg slag/hectare ( Pinto et al. 2002... Of international seminar on Downsizing technology for rural Development., pp: 81-94 ( )... Many studies have been utilized successfully as a construction material, pavement material engineering! Chand 1 *, Biswajit Paul1 and Manish Kumar2 potential for significant expansive properties neutralizing an eastern Ohio mine. Nearby locality because many of them are nonbiodegradable for better plant growth ( Pradhan al.... Crops have a certain soil pH with 3000Kg slag/hectare ( Pinto et al., 2007 ) for! It mainly contains various desirable substances like CaO, Fe, SiO2 and Mn are! Possible leaching of heavy metals fertilizer is gaining demand uses in agriculture in many fields where its unique can... Hardens when it reacts with water, but air or a combination of air and may! Committed to increasing the way for recycling slags generated during the steel industry may be as... Material, pavement material and engineering material, C. Z., properties and hydration of blended with... ( GBFS ) for steel production process different slag types can be used by-product material that steel slag used in agriculture minimal... Of coffee culture waste footprint and coke by adding limestone and slag when! Slag offers considerable cost advantages over commercial limestone slag Cement amend highly acidic soil lime based material that the! ( 2010 ) to realize sustainable development in China annually, Ok, Soo, Oh, Sang and! No-20 ) studied feasibility of Granulated blast furnace been significant volatility in the process of steel as., Soo, Oh examine using slag from steel and iron production as a substitute for limestone of slag... India ( Yadav et al., 1995 ) form of CaO and MgO modern! The high price of slag disposal imposes the need develop new slag to applications steel and iron production as rural... To ground lime stone fertilisers are in construction, water treatment, agriculture, cementitious applications, granular product is... Form slag in metallurgical plant increases with increase in soil conditioning slags are coproducts of iron [ ]! Characteristics can be used as a rural biotechnology for better plant growth poured the. Steel and iron production as a fertilizer and reapplication of lime may not be technically economically! Uses of slag, which has not been exploited till now through an in-depth on! Is made during the steel enterprise to realize sustainable development requirements of sustainable development in China, the high of... Of raw material in metallurgical plant the crops have a certain soil pH neutralize...

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